cancer regulation and cognitive behavioral treatment interventions 1 page dblspaced

Cancer Regulation and Cognitive/Behavioral Treatment Interventions

With over 100 known types and evidence of it found in Egyptian mummies, cancer is one of the oldest known cases of autoimmune disease. Cancer emerges as a single mutated cell that rapidly clones itself. Unimpeded by the immune system’s defense mechanisms, cancer tumors grow most commonly in the lungs, the liver, and the breast. In fact, cancer tumor growth has a strong relationship with immune function and stress. That relationship is more apparent in how some psychosocial factors are common to chronic stress and pose a risk to cancer development. Psychosocial factors are behavioral, social, psychological, environmental, and cultural factors that all influence health. With cognitive/behavioral treatment interventions known to be effective in reducing the stress factors in that relationship, consider how behavior might have an impact on cell mutation and cell growth.

For this Discussion, review this week’s Learning Resources, including Chapter 28 and Chapter 30 of the Contrada text from the previous two weeks. Reflect on the relationships among psychosocial factors, immune factors, and cancer regulation. Next, select two psychosocial factors and two immune factors involved in cancer regulation. Then select two cognitive/behavioral interventions that might have potential to be used as complementary treatments for cancer. Finally, search the Walden Library and select two articles that support the use of those cognitive/behavioral interventions as complementary treatment for cancer.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 4 a brief description of the two psychosocial factors and the two immune factors you selected. Next, explain how each is related to cancer regulation. Finally, explain at least two cognitive/behavioral interventions that might have the potential to be used as a complementary treatment of cancer. Support the use of those cognitive/behavioral interventions in the complementary treatment of cancer with reference to the articles you selected. Be specific.

Be sure to support your posts and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.


  • Contrada, R. J. (2011). The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.
    • Review Chapter 28, “Stress and the Heart: Psychosocial Stress and Coronary Heart Disease” (pp. 385–398)
    • Review Chapter 30, “Stress and the Cancers” (pp. 411–423)
    • Chapter 35, “Stress and Chronic Disease Management” (pp. 487–500)
  • Kendall-Tackett, K. (Ed.). (2010). The psychoneuroimmunology of chronic disease: Exploring the links between inflammation, stress and illness. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
    • Chapter 8, “Allostasis: A Model for Women’s Health” (pp. 183–218)
  • Schnurr, P. P., & Green, B. L. (Eds.). (2004). Trauma and health: Physical health consequences of exposure to extreme stress. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Copyright 2004 by Trauma and health: physical health consequences of exposure to extreme stress. Used by permission of AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (BOOKS) via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  • Fagundes, C. P., Bennett, J. M., Alfano, C. M., Glaser, R., Povoski, S. P., Lipari, A. M., …Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2012). Social support and socioeconomic status interact to predict Epstein-Barr virus latency in women awaiting diagnosis or newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Health Psychology, 31(1), 11–19.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Kendall-Tackett, K. (2009). Psychological trauma and physical health: A psychoneuroimmunology approach to etiology of negative health effects and possible interventions. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1(1), 35–48.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Reiche, E. M., Morimoto, H. K., & Nunes, S. M. (2005). Stress and depression-induced immune dysfunction: Implications for the development and progression of cancer. International Review of Psychiatry, 17(6), 515–527.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Todd, P. B. (2008). The psychoneuroimmunological database for psychological interventions in HIV infection. Gay & Lesbian Issues & Psychology Review, 4(2), 141–147.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • AIDS Info. (n. d.). Information on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and research. Retrieved from
  • National Institutes of Health. (2011). Health information: Cancer (general). Retrieved from

Optional Resources

  • Argaman, M., Gidron, Y., & Ariad, S. (2005). Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: A proposed model. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12(3), 161–170.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Garssen, B., Boomsmaa, M. F., & Beelen, R. H. J. (2010). Psychological factors in immunomodulation induced by cancer surgery: A review. In Biological Psychology, 85(1), 1–13.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • McCain, N. L., Gray, D. P., Walter, J. M., & Robins, J. (2005). Implementing a comprehensive approach to the study of health dynamics using the psychoneuroimmunology paradigm. Advances in Nursing Science, 28(4), 320–332.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • O’Cleirigh, C., Safren, S., (2008). Optimizing the effects of stress management interventions in HIV. Health Psychology, 27(3), 297–301.
  • Yarnell, E., & Abascal, K. (2008). Holistic approaches to prostate cancer. Alternative & Complementary Therapies, 14(4), 164–180.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Aguirre, J. C. (2012, July 13). Generic drugs make dent in global AIDS pandemic [Blog post]. Retrieved from
  • AIDS.GOV. (n. d.). Retrieved from
  • World Health Organization. (2012). HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from

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