History 204 Need someone serious only please


Ethnicity and Gender in the 19th
Background: Many Americans like to imagine the history of
their nation as one of continual progress. While acknowledging that
not all persons and groups enjoyed equal rights at all times,
Americans often take it for granted that American history moves in
only one direction: toward greater rights, greater freedom, and
greater equality. However, from roughly 1867 to 1875, African
Americans enjoyed far more political influence and equal rights than
they ever had before, or ever would again, until the end of the
modern Civil Rights Movement almost a century later. In addition to
the disturbance in the social hierarchy created by the end of
slavery, the nation experienced the influx of huge numbers of
immigrants during the last half of the 1800s, many of whom were
viewed by the American population as different and inferior to
earlier waves of immigrants. Adding to concerns about social order
was the push for women’s suffrage that arose after Civil War. These
factors came together to create a threat to White male supremacy and
combined to create a period characterized by conflict over race,
ethnicity, and gender.

Review the following sources about the
differences between primary and secondary sources:



  • Entertaining
    Citizenship: Masculinity and Minstrelsy in Post-Emancipation San

  • Identity,
    Marriage, and Schools: Life along the Color Line/s in the Era of
    Plessy v. Ferguson

  • Whiteness,
    Freedom, and Technology: The Racial Struggle Over Philadelphia’s
    Streetcars, 1859-1867

Explore the Alien
thoroughly, viewing all of the links. You are not required to answer
the questions on the website, but consider them. Watch What
is Freedom?—Freedom: A History of US
the Films on Demand database. Based on Chapter 1 in your textbook,
the required exhibit, and the film, explain

  • Why
    the last half of the 1800s was a time of conflict over the meanings
    of citizenship, race, and gender.

  • How
    African Americans, White Americans, and immigrants worked to secure
    their places in the social and political hierarchy.


In the last quarter of the 19th Century, the Industrial Revolution
was in full swing; however, with the business boom came a number of
concerns, including corporate influence in politics and waves of
immigration, as well as a middle class in apparent decline. These
developments seemed to threaten to alter the character of American
society as new technologies introduced new social problems, as well
as offering new opportunities. The rise of captains of industry (or
robber barons), with their sway of politicians, created a widespread
feeling among common Americans that they had had lost control of
their government.

Required Source: 

Based on your textbook and the assigned video, analyze how the
revolutionary nature of this period impacted either Native Americans,
immigrants, or farmers, using the following questions as the basis of
your analysis:

  • What
    were the most revolutionary social and economic developments of the
    last quarter of the nineteenth century?

  • How
    did the group of Americans you chose to examine respond to those
    changes, and how effective were their responses?

  • What
    role did government play in these developments?

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